Hibiscus' medical function and applications

Views: 3     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-04-18      Origin: Site

As a medicinal and food dual-use plant that has emerged in recent years, rose ashwagandha has good prospects for development in the food and cosmeceuticals industry because of its rich nutrition and contains a variety of bioactive substances. This paper elaborates the biological activity and product development and application status of solanum rosecalyx, and provides a reference for the in-depth research and utilization of rosehacarp resources.

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Also known as roselle flowers, because of its calyx color such as rose red, known as the ruby of the plant kingdom, high nutritional value, is the ideal raw material for natural health products. As a medicinal and food dual-use crop that has emerged in recent years, rose ashwagandha is native to tropical and subtropical regions, and was introduced from Africa, Southeast Asia and other places in the 1950s, and now Has a certain planting scale in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Yunnan and other places in China.

1 Nutrients

Calyx rosea contains a large number of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients [1]. Among them, carbohydrate content (68.7%) is the highest, followed by crude fiber (14.6%), ash (12.2%), protein (6.71%), and fat (1.01%). [2]。 Inès Jabeur et al. [3] studies have found that rose ashwagandha calyx contains ascorbic acid, β-carotene, niacin, riboflavin, α- and β-tocopherols and other ingredients. The mineral elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and trace elements iron, manganese, and zinc are also high [4]. In addition, it contains about 1% of 17 amino acids [5].

2 Bioactive ingredients

The main bioactive constituents of roseha calyx are organic acids, anthocyanins, polyphenols, and polysaccharides. Among them, the proportion of organic acids is very high, mainly including citric acid (12% to 20%), hydroxycitric acid, hibiscus acid (13% to 24%), malic acid (2% to 9% and tartaric acid (0.02% to 8%), as well as small amounts of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid (0.02% to 0.05%).[6] 。 The total anthocyanin content in dried calyx is 1.5%, of which phyllobitin-3-sambudisaccharide accounts for 85% of the total anthocyanins, which is the main source of antioxidant power of rose extract[7]. Flavonoids such as quercetin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, protocatechin, catechin, catechin, caffeine, and catechin gallic acid have also been found [8]. The monosaccharides in calyx consist mainly of arabinose, galactose, glucose, and rhamnose, and also contain small amounts of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, mannose, and xylose.[9]

3 Biologically active effect

A large number of studies have shown that the polyphenols and organic acids present in the calyx of rosea have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, bacteriostatic, anti-anemia and other effects.

3.1 Antioxidant Solanum rosea extract has significant antioxidant effects[10-12]. Xu Yang et al. [13] The phylloscopin-3-O-sambu disaccharide monomer prepared from rose ashwagandha can significantly inhibit H2O2-induced HepG2 intracellular ROS Generation, GSH loss, mitochondrial membrane potential reduction and mitochondrial membrane oxidation, thereby alleviating the oxidative stress response induced by H2O2 in HepG2 cells. Aiman et al. [14] studied the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of Rosea extract on H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cells, and the results showed that rose rose Ashwagandha extract has a significant effect on clearing reactive oxygen species, and improves the activity of catalase and glutathione content, reduces the expression of caspase-3 pro-apoptotic factor, and promotes the expression of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic factor, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, and significantly weakens Neurotoxicity of H2O2. Current studies have shown that the antioxidant activity of Rose ashwagandha is attributed to its strong scavenging effect on reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which can inhibit xanthine oxidase activity, improve cellular oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, inhibit the formation of malondialdehyde content, reduce glutathione consumption, reduce the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the blood, and increase the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione in the liver , reduce the content of malondialdehyde [15-17].

3.2 Hypolipidemic lipids A number of studies have shown that Rose ashwagandha extract has hypolipidemic effects and anti-obesity effects. Antilipidemia may be due to the presence of anthocyanins and protocatechin in rose extract, and isomers of hydroxycitric acid inhibit the citric acid lyase, inhibiting acetyl-CoA production, thereby inhibiting triglycerides and cholesterol biosynthesis [18]. Diana[19] Assessed the effect of rosehagrass extract on obesity and its complications by establishing a high-sugar, high-fat rat model, and the results showed that calyx had a significant anti-obesity effect and could improve insulin resistance. Moyano et al. [20] found in animal model studies that a high-fat diet based on rose ashwagandha reduced weight, obesity, plasma total cholesterol, and glucose in mice. The results of the clinical study of Gurrola [21] also showed that patients treated with rose ashwagandha powder capsules for 30 days had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol than the control group. Sabzghabaee et al. [22] randomly divided 90 obese adolescents aged 12 to 18 with dyslipidemia In the 2 groups, the treatment group consumed 2 g of rose ashwagandha powder per day, while the control group provided a placebo, and the other dietary composition and exercise amount were the same for 30 days, and the results showed that the serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides in the treatment group were significantly reduced. However, there was no significant change in HDL cholesterol levels, indicating that rose ashwagandha powder may have a significant effect on lowering blood lipids in adolescents. The extracts selected from these trials lack uniformity, and most of the trials lasted very short, only about 28 days, but patients needed lipid levels in their bodies after taking statins or making dietary and lifestyle changes2 It takes months to reflect effective changes [23]. Therefore, by prolonging the duration of treatment, the results obtained may be more convincing. It can be seen from the results of various tests that Rose ashwagandha extract lowers blood pressure on a dose-dependent basis, and the adverse reactions after short-term use are mild and rare.

3.3 Blood pressure lowering Solanum roseum calyx has an important hypotensive effect, and has a relatively large tolerance and safety, which can achieve the effect of reducing serum sodium concentration without changing potassium level [24]. Calyx extract contains phylloscopin-3-O-sambudisaccharides, cornflower-3-O-sambudisaccharides, which inhibit the activity of ACE by competing with the substrate for activity sites, thereby achieving a hypotensive effect [25]. Inuwa et al. [26] studied the effects of Rosea calyx aqueous extract on the length and surface area of the capillaries of the left ventricles on spontaneous hypertensive rats to obtain Rose ashwagandha Calyx extracts may reduce blood pressure in hypertensive rats by reducing the diffusion distance between capillaries and muscle cells and the formation of new blood vessels, and these effects may help restore the normal nutritional status of cardiomyocytes damaged by hypertensive hypertrophic states. In a randomized clinical trial conducted by Mozaffari et al. [27], 100 patients with mild hypertension type II diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into a tea group of rose solanoate tea ( ST) and Green Tea Group (GT), drink sour tea and green tea 2 h after each meal 3 times a day for 28 days, compared to when starting, Its systolic and diastolic blood pressure are significantly reduced, and the therapeutic effect of drinking tea at the end is 43.5% in ST and 39.6% in GT. In the future, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials combined with standard active ingredient doses can be extended to determine the effectiveness of Rose ashwagandha extract as a hypotensive agent and its possible toxicological effects.

3.4 Anti-anemia Rosehacarpus calyx is the most commonly mentioned plant with anti-anemia effect, rich in iron and ascorbic acid, which contributes to the absorption of non-heme iron. A survey in the Poigny area found that local residents generally use flower tea made from rose ashwagandha calyx to prevent anemia, which is both cheap and effective [28]. Adigun et al. [29] conducted animal and human model experiments using rose ashwagandha extract and showed elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin. Zeng Rong et al. [30] conducted a preliminary investigation of the anti-anemia mechanism of rose ashwagandha extract, and the results showed that roseha water extract mainly promoted the absorption of iron by providing active ingredients, thereby affecting the IDA rats Expression of DMT-1, FPN-1, Hp, Hepcidin-25 and their mRNA maintains iron homeostasis and achieves anti-anemia effect.

3.5 Bacteriostatic Rose extract's bacteriostatic ability is mainly due to flavonoids, as they are able to form complexes with the bacterial cell wall and penetrate into the extract through the surface of the bacterial cell. Its mechanism of action may be to inhibit electron transporter translocation, phosphorylation steps, and other enzyme-dependent reactions, followed by increased plasma membrane permeability, resulting in ions leaking from bacterial cells [31]. Linares et al. [32] determined the antibacterial activity of Rose Solanol Extract against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus), and the results showed that Rosea Solanum extract was common to all tested bacterial strains Effective, the inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria is more significant. However, the existing research only stays in vitro trials, and follow-up clinical trials can be carried out to further verify the bacteriostatic effect of rose ashwagandha extract.

3.6 Diuretic Rose ashwagandha extract has a natriuretic and potassium preservation effect. Javier et al. [33] were found through 2 experimental models (rat diuresis and kidney "in situ" renal filtration velocity), Rose ashwagandha The dose of aqueous solution at 500 to 2500 mg/kg produces a repeatable diuretic effect. The diuretic effect of Rose ashwagandha may be mediated by the dependent release of nitric oxide by endothelial cells.

4 Development and utilization of rose ashwagandha products

As a kind of medicinal and food plant that has emerged in recent years, rose ashwagandha has good development prospects in the food and cosmeceuticals industries because of its rich nutrition and many effects, and the development of new products with other characteristics can bring benefits to consumers.

4.1 Processed products

4.1.1 Rose ashwagandha color is an important indicator of food quality, synthetic pigments have certain safety problems, and natural pigments are natural, high safety, nutritious and pharmacological effects, therefore, the development and application of natural food coloring is more and more valued by people. Because of its attractive color, rose ashwagandha calyx has become one of the raw materials for the preparation of natural food coloring. Rose lycopene is one of the edible natural pigments mentioned in China's "National Standard for Food Safety And Food Additive Use Standards". At present, there have been more studies on the preparation method of rose solanum, and Zheng Yunquan [34] obtains high-purity roseglobin through the combination of extraction, membrane separation, and macroporous resin separation, which is simple and low cost, and can be used for large-scale industrial production. Yao Dekun [35] used ultra-high pressure extraction binding membrane equipment and large pore adsorption resin to purify anthocyanins, and obtained high-purity rose ashwagandha red pigment.

4.1.2 Compound cider The fruit wine obtained by brewing rose ash with other fruits enriches the types of fruit wine, stimulates consumers' desire to buy, and promotes the benign development of the industry. Cui Na [36] developed rose solanum bayberry fruit wine, is a composite fruit wine brewed from rose ash and bayberry as raw materials, through the process of dipping, fermentation and other processes, the coordination is pleasant, the wine quality is soft and light, and the aftertaste is long. Niu Guangjie[37] is a gem eggplant wine prepared from rose eggplant, hawthorn and rock sugar liquor, which has bright colors and a full body, and has the effect of improving sleep and beauty. Yang Min et al. [38] added lychee honey to rose solanum juice, and fermented by Angel wine yeast to produce rose solanum mead, which is pleasing to the eye, clear and transparent, and the wine is soft and mellow, with the typical aroma of rose solanum honey wine. Zhang Tianxiao[39] developed rose solanum semi-sweet and fragrant wine, the main raw materials are fresh grapes, rose solanum flowers, with a unique rose solanum floral aroma, while rich in rose solanum beneficial ingredients.

4.1.3 Compound beverage The traditional use of rose ashwagandha is to soak dried flowers in water, which is too simple and does not fully reflect the beautiful color, unique fragrance and nutritional value of roseha. Therefore, in recent years, the research and development of rose ashwagandha composite beverage products has become a hot spot for continuous research in the beverage industry. Wang Lixia [40] with rose solanum and glutinous rice as the main raw materials, brewed rose solanum glutinous rice wine, and then mixed into rose solanum glutinous rice wine drink, the drink is ruby red, sweet and sour, clear and transparent, both rose tomato and glutinous rice wine aroma. Chen Yuehua [41] combines rose ashwagandha with black tea, and the resulting roseha flower tea not only has the high nutritional value of black tea, anti-cancer and other effects, but also has the benefits of rose ash can promote blood circulation, nourish the face and prolong life. Li Guoqiang [42] uses rose ashwagandha extract extract after alcohol extraction and n-butanol as one of the raw materials, and is compounded with apple raw vinegar, apple juice concentrate and honey, making the rose ashwagandha complex drink has excellent flavor and excellent health care functions. Zhong Xumei et al. [43] combine the brightly colored rose eggplant and red meat dragon fruit, and the vinegar drink prepared not only retains the color and aroma of rose eggplant and dragon fruit, the product is rich in nutrition, sweet and sour, and also has the health care function of eliminating fatigue and regulating the balance of the human gastrointestinal tract, and the stability of the product is good, and it is not easy to appear flocculent precipitation.

4.1.4 Compound Jam The calyx of rosea is thick, bright in color and unique in flavor, making it the most suitable for making jam. He Xiyuan et al. [44] Rose tomato compound jam obtained in a certain proportion of rose tomato, red jujube, yellow peel juice, etc. is delicate and smooth, stable in form, without the need to add thickeners such as pectin, and has certain health benefits. He Weijun et al. [45] Rose solanum jam prepared through the fermentation of lactic acid bacteria not only has the effects of intestinal benefit, antioxidant and blood pressure reduction of rose solanum and lactic acid bacteria, but also has rich raw materials for its preparation, high economic benefits and excellent taste, which is suitable for any group of people. Wang Jianhua et al. [46] The jam developed from chrysanthemum, rose eggplant and hawthorn three kinds of medicinal and food homologous materials as raw materials is purple-red, clear and transparent, and the chrysanthemum petals are evenly dispersed in it, complete and full, moderate in taste, with a strong chrysanthemum and hawthorn aroma, and has certain health care functions.

4.1.5 Compound yogurt Add rose ashwagandha as a raw material to yogurt, which can improve the overall quality of yogurt. Studies such as Noviatri [47] have found that the addition of roseha calyx extract to yogurt can increase the antioxidant capacity and sensory value of yogurt. Han Denglun et al. [48] use rose ashwagandha, wild goji berries and hawthorn as raw materials for yogurt, which not only makes yogurt have a unique flavor and excellent eating experience, but also has the effect of lowering blood pressure, replenishing deficiency, appetizing, etc., especially suitable for long-term weakness and high blood pressure people. The rose eggplant yogurt developed by Wang Shiyao [49] is delicious, the raw materials are easy to obtain, the nutritional value is high, and the price is good.

4.1.6 Other products Modern people pursue a high-quality life, and the demand for product types is increasingly growing, so there are many products with rose tomato characteristics that have been developed. Zhou Jianzhi [50] made of rose eggplant, glutinous rice, maltose and other materials, crisp and sweet, crisp in the mouth, endless aftertaste, with a characteristic flavor. Yang Chengdong [51] with low gluten flour as the main raw material, add rose ashwagandha, made rose solanum cookies, rich in amino acids, vitamin C and other nutrients, a wide range of consumers, and has many effects. The rose solanum waffle prepared by Wang Lixia et al. [52] has a complete shape, uniform thickness, no cracks on the surface, fine and uniform internal tissue, delicate and non-stick teeth, and has a rose tomato flavor. Wei Junchao [53] made a purple rose tomato meat muffin with a purple skin from raw materials such as rose solanum brown sugar powder and high gluten flour, which in addition to the flavor and nutritional value of the meat muffin itself, also integrates the active nutrients of rose solanum. It is beneficial for regulating and balancing blood lipids, and has a great role in promoting calcium absorption. Hong Xuan et al. [54] Add carrageenan, konjac powder, etc. to the rose tomatoes to make jelly, which has a complete appearance, a uniform and delicate texture, a smooth taste, moderate sweet and sour, and a unique flavor of rose tomato. Wang Linlin[55] rose eggplant candied fruit products are crisp and tender, fruity, with a unique flavor of rose eggplant, rich in nutrients and beneficial to health. In addition, there are rose ash annull enzymes[56], rose ash dumplings[57], rose ash dumplings,[58] and roses Products such as eggplant cake [59] and rose ashwagandha oral liquid [60] have been welcomed by consumers.

4.2 Food packaging materials At present, the freshness indicators in smart packaging are mostly chemical dyes, but the chemical synthesis reagents have certain toxicity, so the preparation of pH-sensitive freshness indicator films with anthocyanins as indicators has become a research hotspot in recent years. Zhang Junjun et al. [61] Intelligent indicator film prepared from rose solanocyanin extract can detect meat freshness according to the color of the indicator film, and has good application potential. Zhai Xiaodong et al. [62] added roseha extract to starch and polyvinyl alcohol to improve the compatibility of these two substances, and finally prepared an indicator film that can be used to monitor the freshness of fish at 4 °C in real time. Jia Daitao[63] With PP as the base film, rose solanocyanin as the freshness indicator after acetic acid modification, and polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution as the base solution, a freshness indicator film was prepared by the spin coating method, which has certain commercial potential.

4.3 Cosmeceuticals In addition to the extensive development and utilization of rose ashgargarine in the food field, the application of cosmeceuticals is also rising. The whitening and moisturizing mask serum of Rose Ashwagandha extract developed by Guo Honghui et al. [64] can reduce the damage caused by radiation, has the function of free radical scavenging, and promotes skin renewal by improving pigment deposition, thereby achieving the effect of whitening, moisturizing and nourishing the skin. Ma Jing [65] developed rose ashwagandha slimming balm, prepared by rose ash extract, mugwort extract, ginger oil, etc., this slimming balm has good stability, and the functional ingredients can enter the skin fat layer to play a role, with a significant weight loss effect. Wang Yifei et al. [66] developed rose ash stem cell lyophilized powder eye cream, the use of rose solanum stem cell antioxidant, stimulate human skin keratinocyte proliferation and anti-aging function, so that the product has the ability to effectively repair damaged eye cells, anti-wrinkle, eliminate dark circles and eye bags, tighten the eye area The efficacy of the skin. Liu Ying [67] developed a whitening freckle removal and prevention of urinary tract infection composition, the main components are rose ash extract, cranberry extract, grape seed extract, can be from a comprehensive, multi-target perspective Achieve whitening of light spots, prevent urinary tract infections in women, and achieve better results in the smallest amount.

5 Conclusion

Rose ash is a crop with high economic value, rich in nutritional value and a variety of pharmacological functions, whether as a food raw material, or applied to the cosmeceuticals industry, are in line with the modern people's green and healthy life concept. At this stage, the research on rose ashwagandha at home and abroad mainly focuses on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effects and product development applications of calyx, while there are few reports on the research and application of its seeds, leaves and stems. According to the relevant literature, rose ash seed has a high oil content and rich nutritional composition, which is very suitable as an extraction raw material for excellent edible oil, and its stem contains a large amount of fiber, high tensile strength, and can be used instead of red hemp for textile and papermaking. At present, in the country except for the calyx other parts have not been effectively utilized, resulting in a great waste of resources, if you can process and utilize seeds, stems, etc. to make it into a treasure, not only can improve the utilization of resources, extend the product industry chain, but also maximize production efficiency.

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