Views: 7 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-03-22 Origin: Site
１． Elderberry benefits upper respiratory symptoms (colds and flu)
Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limiting irritation and swelling of the upper respiratory tract (nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, and airways), most commonly the common cold and flu
The main symptoms are cough, sore throat, runny nose, discomfort, nasal congestion, headache, fever, and viral infection with the most common causative factors, such as rhinovirus, influenza virus, adenovirus, enterovirus and respiratory syncytial virus.
In addition to influenza, there are relatively few complications of upper respiratory tract infections, and complications of influenza infection include primary influenza viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, myocarditis, etc.
A meta-analysis (including four randomized controlled trials of 180 patients with upper respiratory tract infections) suggested that supplementation with elderberry extract significantly reduced the duration of upper respiratory tract symptoms.
In addition, moderator analyses found that influenza vaccination status did not change the effect of elderberry supplementation, and that the improvement (symptom duration and severity) was most significant in influenza (compared to the common cold).
*Conclusion: Supplementation with standardized elderberry extract in the presence of upper respiratory tract symptoms may help reduce symptom duration and severity, but due to the small sample size, more studies are needed to support it
２． Elderberry is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthropathy, primary osteoarthritis, abrasive arthritis, or age-related arthritis, is the leading cause of disability worldwide
A variety of factors including family history, age, obesity, diabetes, synovitis, systemic inflammatory mediators, innate immunity, lower extremity alignment (knee valgus or knee varus), joint dysplasia, trauma, metabolic syndrome, and inflammation are all associated with knee osteoarthritis formation
A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled clinical trial (4-week patients with knee osteoarthritis) noted that topical elderberry gel (Sambucus ebulus L., extracted from leaves) had better symptom improvement (with WOMAC pain score, WO totalMAC score, and VAS score for) than diclofenac, analgesic gel diclofenac pain measured).
*Conclusion: Topical elderberry extraction gel may be helpful for knee osteoarthritis, but due to the small sample size, more studies are needed for further verification
３． Elderberry is beneficial for cryptoptera dermatitis
Paederus dermatitis is an acute irritating contact dermatitis caused by cryptoptera released when cryptoptera is crushed on the skin
Patients often present with a sudden burning sensation and skin pain accompanied by erythema, pustules, and vesicles, pigmentation is a common sequela that may last up to a month, and extensive ulcers may occur.
This vesicular dermatitis may be confused with viral and bacterial skin diseases such as bullous pustules, herpes simplex, and shingles
In a randomized double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial (in 62 patients with Cryptoptera dermatitis), Group A used topical palemolin (5% elderberry alcohol insurgenol) and hydrocortisone ointment, and Group B was given a 70% ethanol topical solution and hydrocortisone ointment.
The results showed that group A was more effective in controlling burning, pain, inflammation, dry wounds, infection and accelerated healing, and 93.9% of patients in group A completely eliminated lesion-related problems within 48 hours after treatment (65.4% in group B).
*Conclusion: Elderberry extract soak may be of positive help in the treatment of Cryptoptera dermatitis, but due to the small sample size, more research is needed for further verification
４． Elderberry is beneficial for cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular diseases are currently the biggest threat to human health, but fortunately, there are 9 potentially modifiable risk factors, including lipids, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, psychological factors, fruit/vegetable intake, exercise, and alcohol consumption.
By 2020, cardiovascular disease will surpass infectious diseases as the leading cause of the global health burden, accounting for about 56% of the total incidence and 73% of the total mortality rate.
A double-blind controlled study (12 weeks in 52 postmenopausal women) showed that although elderberry fruit extract was safe, the cardiovascular effect was still limited, and there were no significant changes in associated risk markers such as inflammation index, vascular reactivity, and blood lipids.
５． Elderberry beneficial osteoporosis (caused by diabetes)
Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone disorders characterized by decreased bone density and increased bone pores, leading to fractures, usually caused by postmenopausal estrogen deficiency and age-related bone loss. Diabetes is also a common predisposing factor
Clinically, it is found that about 1/2 to 2/3 of diabetic patients have weakened bone strength, and 1/3 are diagnosed with osteoporosis.
An animal study pointed out (in mice injected with streptozotocin/streptozotocin inducing diabetes) that elderberry extract may have the effect of slowing bone loss and improving osteoporosis, but due to the lack of relevant human studies, further confirmation is needed.
６． Elderberry good cholesterol management
Cholesterol (Cholesterol) is a waxy steroid molecule that has the effect of maintaining cell membrane fluidity and insulation, and is an indispensable substance for cells to maintain normal function
In addition, cholesterol is also a precursor to hormones, can produce sex hormones, mineral corticosteroids (to maintain water and electrolyte balance), glucocorticoids (to control protein and carbohydrate metabolism, immunosuppression and inflammation), is an indispensable substance to maintain normal metabolic function.
A double-blind controlled study (2 weeks in 34 healthy subjects) showed that low-dose elderberry extract had a slight postprandial lipid (cholesterol)-lowering effect compared to placebo.
Are there any side effects of elderberry?
Commercially available qualified elderberry extract is very safe for short-term use at the recommended dosage of the product and no significant side effects have been found
Immature, uncooked fruit or other parts (rhizomes and leaves) contain cyanides or cyanogenic glycosides, which can cause adverse reactions such as nausea, stomach pain, numbness, impaired consciousness, weakness, vomiting, or severe diarrhea if overdose
Safety precautions (5 points of use contraindications)
1. Do not use it for pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children (due to unknown safety).
2. Do not use in patients with poor liver and kidney function (due to unknown safety).
3. Some people will be allergic to butter raspberries, if you have allergies after eating (such as: runny nose, itchy or red eyes, breathing difficulties), please stop immediately and seek medical attention
4. Do not take for patients with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis) or who have received organ transplants (as it may stimulate the immune system).
5. Do not use in combination with diuretics, diabetes drugs, chemotherapy drugs, laxatives and immunosuppressants, which may interfere with the effect of drugs and cause unknown risks