Views: 8 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-02-03 Origin: Site
Echinacea, is an herbaceous plant that grows in North America and Europe. While there are many species of the genus Echinacea, extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia are the most commonly used dietary supplements. Echinacea supplements on the U.S. market often contain extracts from multiple species and plant parts.
Echinacea contains volatile terpenes, polysaccharides, polyacetates, alkanes, phenolic compounds, caffeates, and glycoproteins. However, the so-called active ingredients of echinacea are not well defined, and the chemical composition of echinacea varies from one to another. Echinacea may have antioxidant and antibacterial activities, stimulate monocytes and natural killer cells, and inhibit the virus from binding to host cells. It may also reduce inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Most studies on echinacea have evaluated whether it can help prevent and treat the common cold and other upper respiratory diseases, but it is also used in traditional medicine to promote wound healing.
Echinacea improves immune function against the Covid-19
Some studies have shown that echinacea has limited benefits against the common cold, so some researchers believe that echinacea may have a similar effect on COVID-19. A preliminary in vitro study found that echinacea inactivated SARS-CoV-2. In a clinical trial in Iran, 100 adults (mean age 45-47) suspected of having COVID-19 based on chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray and clinical symptoms were identified years), they were not hospitalized and received echinacea (species and dose unknown) plus ginger (dose unknown) and hydroxychloroquine for 7 days or hydroxychloroquine alone. Between 91% and 98% of those who received a combination of echinacea, ginger, and hydroxychloroquine experienced relief from cough, muscle pain, and shortness of breath, while receiving hydroxyl alone Only 69 to 79 percent of people with chloroquine have these benefits. However, combination therapy did not reduce the severity of fever or sore throat, nor did it reduce hospitalizations for COVID-19.
ClinicalTrials.gov shows that several clinical trials are evaluating the effects of echinacea on COVID-19. For example, in a clinical trial in Bulgaria, different doses of echinacea supplements will investigate whether different doses of echinacea supplements can reduce the number of children and adults aged 12 to 75 with COVID-19 Transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Because echinacea may have an immunostimulating effect, some researchers believe it may worsen the cytokine storm that can occur in COVID-19 patients. However, evidence from clinical trials suggests that the use of echinacea reduces, rather than increases, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Safety of echinacea
Echinacea appears to be safe and few adverse effects have been reported, the most common of which are gastrointestinal discomfort and rashes. Reports of elevated aminotransferases and liver damage are associated with its use, and these events may be caused by contaminants or preparation of the product. In a few cases, echinacea can cause allergic reactions. The safety of echinacea during pregnancy is unknown, so experts advise pregnant women not to use echinacea supplements. Echinacea may interact with several medications. For example, echinacea may increase the activity of cytochrome P450, which reduces the levels of certain drugs metabolized by these enzymes. In addition, because echinacea has potential immunostimulating activity, it may reduce the effectiveness of immunosuppressants. Although echinacea performs well in improving immune function, it is still necessary to supplement various nutrients and follow the advice of professionals when targeting a certain symptom.
The above is not intended to treat, diagnose, cure or prevent any disease.
GurleyBJ, Fifer EK, Gardner Z. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (part 2): druginteractions involving popular botanical dietary supplements and their clinicalrelevance. Planta Med 2012; 78:1490-514.
WeberWJ, Hopp DC. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Healthperspectives on clinical research involving natural products. Drug Metab Dispos2020; 48:963-5.
CáceresDD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Sandberg F, Wikman GK. Use of visual analogue scale measurements(VAS) to asses the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculataextract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized doubleblind-placebo study. PhytomedicinePhytomedicine 1999; 6:217-23.
AkbarS. Andrographis paniculata: a review of pharmacological activities and clinicaleffects. Altern Med Rev 2011; 16:66-77.
HuXY, Wu RH, Logue M, Blondel C, Lai LYW, Stuart B, et al. Andrographispaniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tractinfections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoSOne 2017; 12:e0181780.
CoonJT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratorytract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med2004; 70:293-8.
KliglerB, Ulbricht C, Basch E, Kirkwood CD, Abrams TR, Miranda M, et al. Andrographispaniculata for the treatment of upper respiratory infection: a systematicreview by the natural standard research collaboration. Explore (New York, NY)2006; 2:25-9.
PuriA, Saxena R, Saxena RP, Saxena KC, Srivastava V, Tandon JS. Immunostimulantagents from Andrographis paniculata. J Nat Prod 1993; 56:995-9.
BanerjeeA, Czinn SJ, Reiter RJ, Blanchard TG. Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulumstress and anti-viral activities: A novel therapeutic target for COVID-19. LifeSci 2020; 255:117842.
EnmozhiSK, Raja K, Sebastine I, Joseph J. Andrographolide as a potential inhibitor ofSARS-CoV-2 main protease: an in silico approach. J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020:1-7.
MuruganNA, Pandian CJ, Jeyakanthan J. Computational investigation on Andrographispaniculata phytochemicals to evaluate their potency against SARS-CoV-2 incomparison to known antiviral compounds in drug trials. J Biomol Struct Dyn2020:1-12.
SilveiraD, Prieto-Garcia JM, Boylan F, Estrada O, Fonseca-Bazzo YM, JAMAl CM, et al. COVID-19:Is there evidence for the use of herbal medicines as adjuvant symptomatictherapy? Front Pharmacol 2020; 11:581840.
WagnerL, Cramer H, Klose P, Lauche R, Gass F, Dobos G, et al. Herbal medicine forcough: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Forsch Komplementmed2015; 22:359-68.
PoolsupN, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, Asawamekin A, Chanchareon U. Andrographispaniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratorytract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J ClinPharm Ther 2004; 29:37-45.
ShiTH, Huang YL, Chen CC, Pi WC, Hsu YL, Lo LC, et al. Andrographolide and itsfluorescent derivative inhibit the main proteases of 2019-nCoV and SARS- CoVthrough covalent linkage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020.
AmericanBotanical Council. Thailand approves Asian herb andrographis to treat COVID-19.HerbalEGram 2021; 18:3.
TheNation Thailand. Two hospitals ready to trial traditional Thai medicine intreating COVID-19. 2020.
TheNation Thailand. Trials underway to test efficacy of Andrographis Paniculataextract for COVID-19. 2020.
TheNation Thailand. Study shows Fah Talai Jone may kill Covid-19, but can offer noprotection . 2020.
Bloomberg.Thailand clears use of herbal medicine for Covid-19 treatment . 2020.
ClinicalTrials.gov.Assessment of Efficacy of KAN-JANG® in Mild COVID-19. 2021
NaturalMedicines Comprehensive Database. Andrographis . 2021.
AmroyanE, Gabrielian E, Panossian A, Wikman G, Wagner H. Inhibitory effect ofandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata on PAF-induced plateletaggregation. Phytomedicine 1999; 6:27-31.
ZhangCY, Tan BK. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata inthe anaesthetized rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 56:97-101.
Sharifi-RadM, Mnayer D, Morais-Braga MFB, Carneiro JNP, Bezerra CF, Coutinho HDM, et al. Echinacea plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents: From traditionalmedicine to biotechnological applications. Phytother Res: PTR 2018; 32:1653-63.
LiverTox.Echinacea. In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-InducedLiver Injury. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive andKidney Diseases; 2012.
DavidS, Cunningham R. Echinacea for the prevention and treatment of upperrespiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. ComplementTher Med 2019; 44:18-26.
Karsch-VölkM, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K. Echinacea forpreventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014; 2:Cd000530.
AucoinM, Cooley K, Saunders PR, Carè J, Anheyer D, Medina DN, et al. The effect ofEchinacea spp. on the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 and other respiratorytract infections in humans: A rapid review. Adv Integr Med 2020.
BoozariM, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatmentregarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies. Phytother Res:PTR 2020.
SignerJ, Jonsdottir HR, Albrich WC, Strasser M, Züst R, Ryter S, et al. In vitrovirucidal activity of Echinaforce®, an Echinacea purpurea preparation, againstcoronaviruses, including common cold coronavirus 229E and SARS-CoV-2. Virol J2020; 17:136.
MesriM, Esmaeili Saber SS, Godazi M, Roustaei Shirdel A, Montazer R, Koohestani HR,et al. The effects of combination of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea onalleviation of clinical symptoms and hospitalization rate of suspected COVID-19outpatients: a randomized controlled trial. J Complement Integr Med 2021.
JawadM, Schoop R, Suter A, Klein P, Eccles R. Safety and efficacy profile ofEchinacea purpurea to prevent common cold episodes: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012:841315.
HolstL, Havnen GC, Nordeng H. Echinacea and elderberry-should they be used againstupper respiratory tract infections during pregnancy? Front Pharmacol 2014; 5:31.
PenzakSR, Robertson SM, Hunt JD, Chairez C, Malati CY, Alfaro RM, et al. Echinaceapurpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alterlopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy2010; 30:797-805. NEW PMID 20653355
NaturalMedicines Comprehensive Database. Echinacea . 2021.